# Important Topics for GATE 2019: An Extensive Study Guide

GATE or Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering is one of the most challenging entrance examinations for Masters degree, direct Doctoral programs and as well as for lucrative jobs in PSUs. It attracts millions of students from different engineering courses every year. Before taking such a challenging examination, it is essential for every candidate to be well aware of GATE exam syllabus. Thus, we bring you an extensive study guide enlisting the GATE exam syllabus, of the significant engineering courses, that you should be well versed with before appearing in **GATE 2019**.

**GATE Exam Syllabus for:**

Mechanical Engineering (ME)

Civil Engineering (CE)

Electronics and Communication Engineering (EC)

Electrical Engineering (EE)

Biotechnology (BT)

Information Technology and Computer Science (CS)

Chemical Engineering (CH)

Production and Industrial Engineering (PI)

**GATE EXAM SYLLABUS FOR** MECHANICAL** ENGINEERING (ME)**

**Section 1: Engineering** Mathematics

- Linear Algebra
- Calculus
- Differential equations
- Complex variables
- Probability and Statistics
- Numerical methods

**Section 2: Applied Mechanics and Design**

- Engineering Mechanics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Theory of Machines
- Vibrations
- Machine Design

**Section 3: Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences**

- Fluid Mechanics
- Heat-Transfer
- Thermodynamics
- Applications

**Section 4: Materials, Manufacturing, and Industrial Engineering**

- Engineering Materials
- Casting, Forming and Joining Processes
- Machining and Machine Tool Operations
- Computer Integrated Manufacturing
- Metrology and Inspection
- Production Planning and Control
- Inventory Control
- Operations Research

**GATE EXAM SYLLABUS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING (CE)**

**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics**

- Linear Algebra
- Calculus
- Differential equation
- Probability and Statistics
- Numerical methods

**Section 2: Structural Engineering**

- Engineering Mechanics
- Solid Mechanics
- Structural Analysis
- Construction Materials and Management
- Concrete Structures
- Steel Structures

**Section 3: Geotechnical Engineering**

- Soil Mechanics
- Foundation Engineering

**Section 4: Water Resources Engineering**

- Fluid Mechanics
- Hydraulics
- Hydrology
- Irrigation

**Section 5: Environmental Engineering**

- Water and Waste Water
- Air pollution
- Municipal Solid Wastes
- Noise Pollution

**Section 6: Transportation Engineering**

- Transportation Infrastructure
- Highway pavements
- Traffic Engineering

**Section 7: Geomatics Engineering**

- Principles of surveying
- Maps
- Coordinate system
- Distance and angular measurement
- Traversing and Photogrammetry
- Remote sensing
- Visual image interpretation
- Basics of Geographical Information System and Geographical Positioning System

**GATE EXAM SYLLABUS FOR ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING (EC)**

**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics**

- Linear Algebra
- Calculus
- Differential Equations
- Vector Analysis
- Complex Analysis
- Numerical Methods
- Probability and Statistics

**Section 2: Networks, Signals and Systems**

- Network solution methods
- Continuous-time signals

**Section 3: Electronic Devices**

- Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic silicon
- Carrier transport
- Generation and recombination of carriers
- Poisson and continuity equations;
- P-N junction
- Zener diode
- BJT
- MOS capacitor
- MOSFET
- LED
- Photo Diode and Solar Cell
- Integrated circuit fabrication process

**Section 4: Analog Circuits**

- Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes
- BJTs and MOSFETs
- Simple diode circuits
- Simple op-amp circuits
- Active filters
- Sinusoidal oscillators
- Function generators
- Voltage reference circuits
- Power supplies

**Section 5: Digital Circuits**

- Number systems
- Combinatorial circuits
- Sequential circuits
- Data converters

**Section 6: Control Systems**

- Basic control system components
- Feedback principle
- Transfer function
- Block diagram representation
- Signal flow graph
- Transient and steady-state analysis of LTI systems
- Frequency response
- Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria
- Bode and root-locus plots
- Lag, lead and lag-lead compensation
- State variable model as well as solution of state equation of LTI systems

**Section 7: Communications**

- Random processes
- Analog communications
- Information theory
- Digital communications
- Timing and frequency synchronization, inter-symbol interference and its mitigation
- Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA

**Section 8: Electromagnetics**

- Electrostatics
- Maxwell’s equations
- Plane waves and properties
- Waveguides
- Antennas
- Basics of radar
- Light propagation in optical fibers

**GATE EXAM SYLLABUS FOR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (EE)**

**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics**

- Linear Algebra
- Calculus
- Differential equation
- Complex variables
- Probability and Statistics
- Numerical Methods
- Transform Theory

**Section 2: Electric Circuits**

- Network graph
- KCL
- KVL
- Node and Mesh analysis
- Transient response of dc and ac networks
- Sinusoidal steady‐state analysis
- Resonance
- Passive filters
- Ideal current and voltage sources
- Thevenin’s theorem
- Norton’s theorem
- Superposition theorem
- Maximum power transfer theorem
- Two‐port networks
- Three phase circuits
- Power and power factor in ac circuits.

**Section 3: Electromagnetic Fields**

- Coulomb’s Law
- Electric Field Intensity
- Electric Flux Density
- Gauss’s Law
- Divergence
- Electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions
- Effect of dielectric medium
- Capacitance of simple configurations
- Biot‐Savart’s law
- Ampere’s law
- Curl,
- Faraday’s law
- Lorentz force
- Inductance
- Magnetomotive force
- Reluctance
- Magnetic circuits
- Self and Mutual inductance of simple configuration

**Section 4: Signals and Systems**

- Representation of continuous and discrete‐time signals
- Shifting and scaling operations
- Linear Time-Invariant and Causal systems
- Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals
- Sampling theorem
- Applications of Fourier Transform
- Laplace Transform and z-Transform
- Representation of continuous and discrete‐time signals
- Shifting and scaling operations

**Section 5: Electrical Machines**

- Single phase transformer
- Three phase transformers
- DC machines
- Three phase induction motors
- Operating principle of single phase induction motors
- Synchronous machines
- Types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric machines

**Section 6: Power Systems**

- Power generation concepts
- AC and DC transmission concepts
- Models and performance of transmission lines and cables
- Series and shunt compensation
- Electric field distribution and insulators
- Distribution systems
- Per‐unit quantities
- Bus admittance matrix
- Gauss-Seidel and Newton-Raphson load flow methods
- Voltage and Frequency control
- Power factor correction
- Symmetrical components
- Symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault analysis
- Principles of over‐current
- Differential and distance protection
- Circuit breakers
- System stability concepts
- Equal area criterion

**Section 7: Control Systems**

- Mathematical modeling and representation of systems
- Feedback principle
- Transfer function
- Block diagrams and Signal flow graphs
- Transient and Steady‐state analysis of linear time-invariant systems
- Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist criteria
- Bode plots
- Root loci
- Stability analysis, Lag, Lead and Lead‐Lag compensators
- P, PI and PID controllers
- State space model
- State transition matrix

**Section 8: Electrical and Electronic Measurements**

- Bridges and Potentiometers
- Measurement of voltage
- Current, power, energy and power factor
- Instrument transformers
- Digital voltmeters and multimeters
- Phase, Time and Frequency measurement
- Oscilloscopes
- Error analysis

**Section 9: Analog and Digital Electronics**

- Characteristics of diodes
- BJT and MOSFET
- Simple diode circuits
- Amplifiers
- Operational amplifiers
- Simple active filters
- VCOs and Timers
- Combinational and Sequential logic circuits
- Multiplexer
- Demultiplexer
- Schmitt trigger
- Sample and hold circuits
- A/D and D/A converters
- 8085Microprocessor

**Section 10: Power Electronics**

- Characteristics of semiconductor power devices
- DC to DC conversion
- Single and three phase configuration of uncontrolled rectifiers
- Line-commutated thyristor-based converters
- Bidirectional ac to dc voltage source converters
- Issues of line current harmonics
- Power factor
- Distortion factor of ac to dc converters
- Single phase and three phase inverters
- Sinusoidal pulse width modulation

**GATE EXAM SYLLABUS FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY (BT)**

**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics**

- Linear Algebra
- Differential Equations
- Probability and Statistics
- Numerical Methods

**Section 2: General Biotechnology**

- Biochemistry
- Microbiology
- Cell Biology
- Molecular Biology and Genetics
- Analytical Techniques
- Immunology
- Bioinformatics

**Section 3: Recombinant DNA Technology**

- Restriction and modification enzymes
- Vectors
- Plasmid
- bacteriophage and other viral vectors
- cosmid
- Ti plasmid
- yeast artificial chromosome
- mammalian and plant expression vectors
- cDNA and genomic DNA library
- Gene isolation, cloning, and expression
- Transposons and gene targeting
- DNA labeling
- DNA sequencing
- Polymerase chain reactions
- DNA fingerprinting
- Southern and northern blotting
- In-situ hybridization
- RAPD, RFLP
- Site-directed mutagenesis
- Gene transfer technologies
- Gene therapy

**Section 4: Plant and Animal Biotechnology**

- Totipotency
- Regeneration of plants
- Plant growth regulators and elicitors
- Tissue culture and Cell suspension culture system
- methodology, kinetics of growth and, nutrient optimization
- Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures
- Hairy root culture
- Transgenic plants
- Plant products of industrial importance Animal cell culture
- Media composition and growth conditions
- Animal cell and tissue preservation
- Anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture
- Kinetics of cell growth
- Micro & macro-carrier culture
- Hybridoma technology
- Stem cell technology
- Animal Cloning
- Transgenic animals

**Section 5: Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology**

- Chemical engineering principles applied to Biological system
- Principle of reactor design
- ideal and non-ideal multiphase bioreactors
- mass and heat transfer
- Rheology of fermentation fluids, Aeration, and agitation
- Media formulation and optimization
- Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization, and product formation
- Sterilization of air and media
- Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes
- Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors
- Instrumentation control and optimization
- Unit operations in solid-liquid separation and liquid-liquid extraction
- Process scale-up, economics, and feasibility analysis
- Engineering principle of bioprocessing- Upstream production and downstream
- Bioprocess design and development from lab to industrial scale
- Microbial, animal and plant cell culture platforms
- Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites
- Biofuels, Bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics
- Large-scale production and purification of recombinant proteins
- Industrial application of chromatographic and membrane-based Bioseparation methods
- Immobilization of biocatalysts (enzymes and cells) for bioconversion processes
- Bioremediation-Aerobic and anaerobic processes for stabilization of solid/liquid wastes

**GATE EXAM SYLLABUS FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE (CS)**

**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics**

- Discrete Mathematics
- Linear Algebra
- Calculus
- Probability

**Section 2: Digital Logic**

- Boolean algebra
- Combinational and sequential circuits
- Minimization
- Number representations and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point)

**Section 3: Computer Organization and Architecture**

- Machine instructions and addressing modes
- ALU, data‐path and control unit
- Instruction pipelining
- Memory hierarchy

**Section 4: Programming and Data Structures**

- Programming in C
- Recursion
- Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, binary search trees, binary heaps, graphs

**Section 5: Algorithms**

- Searching, sorting, hashing
- Asymptotic worst-case time and space complexity
- Algorithm design techniques

**Section 6: Theory of Computation**

- Regular expressions and finite automata
- Context-free grammars and pushdown automata
- Regular and context-free languages, pumping lemma
- Turing machines and undecidability

**Section 7: Compiler Design**

- Lexical analysis, parsing, syntax-directed translation
- Runtime Environments
- Intermediate code generation

**Section 8: Operating System**

- Processes, threads, inter‐process communication, concurrency, and synchronization.
- Deadlock
- CPU scheduling
- Memory management and virtual memory
- File systems

**Section 9: Databases**

- ER‐model
- Relational
- Transactions and concurrency control

**Section 10: Computer Networks**

- Concept of layering
- LAN technologies (Ethernet)
- Flow and error control techniques, switching
- IPv4/IPv6, routers and routing algorithms (distance vector, link state)
- TCP/UDP and sockets, congestion control
- Application layer protocols (DNS, SMTP, POP, FTP, HTTP)
- Basics of Wi-Fi
- Network security

**GATE EXAM SYLLABUS FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (CH)**

**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics**

- Linear Algebra
- Calculus
- Differential equations
- Probability and Statistics

**Section 2: Process Calculations and Thermodynamics**

- Steady and unsteady state mass and energy balances including multiphase, multi-
- component, reacting and non-reacting systems.
- Use of tie components;
- recycle, bypass and purge calculations
- Gibb’s phase rule and degree of freedom analysis.
- First and Second laws of thermodynamics.
- Applications of first law to close and open systems.
- Second law and Entropy.
- Thermodynamic properties of pure substances
- Properties of mixtures
- Phase equilibria
- Chemical reaction equilibrium

**Section 3: Fluid Mechanics and Mechanical Operations**

**Fluid statics**

- Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids
- shell-balances including differential form of Bernoulli equation and energy balance
- Macroscopic friction factors
- Dimensional analysis and similitude
- Flow through pipeline systems
- Flow meters
- Pumps and compressors
- Elementary boundary layer theory
- Flow past immersed bodies including packed and fluidized beds

**Turbulent flow**

- Fluctuating velocity
- Universal velocity profile and pressure drop
- Particle size and shape
- Particle size distribution
- Size reduction and classification of solid particles
- Free and hindered settling
- Centrifuge and cyclones
- Thickening and classification
- Filtration
- Agitation and mixing
- Conveying of solids

**Section 4: Heat Transfer**

- Steady and unsteady heat conduction
- Convection and radiation
- Thermal boundary layer and heat transfer coefficients
- Boiling, condensation and evaporation
- Types of heat exchangers and evaporators and their process calculations
- Design of double pipe, shell and tube heat exchangers, and single and multiple effect evaporators

**Section 5: Mass Transfer**

- Fick’s laws
- Molecular diffusion in fluids
- Mass transfer coefficients
- Film
- Penetration and surface renewal theories
- Momentum, heat and mass transfer analogies
- Stage-wise and continuous contacting and stage efficiencies
- HTU & NTU concepts
- Design and operation of equipment for distillation
- Absorption
- Leaching
- Liquid-liquid extraction
- Drying
- Humidification, dehumidification
- Adsorption

**Section 6: Chemical Reaction Engineering**

- Theories of reaction rates
- Kinetics of homogeneous reactions
- Interpretation of kinetic data
- Single and multiple reactions in ideal reactors
- Non-ideal reactors
- Residence time distribution
- Single parameter model
- Non-isothermal reactors
- Kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions
- Diffusion effects in catalysis

**Section 7: Instrumentation and Process Control**

- Measurement of process variables
- Sensors
- Transducers and their dynamics
- Process modeling and linearization
- Transfer functions and dynamic responses of various systems
- Systems with inverse response
- Process reaction curve
- Controller modes (P,PI, and PID)
- Control valves
- Analysis of closed loop systems including stability
- Frequency response
- Controller tuning
- Cascade and feed forward control

**Section 8: Plant Design and Economics**

- Principles of process economics and cost estimation including depreciation and
- total annualized cost
- Cost indices
- Rate of return
- Payback period
- Discounted cash flow
- Optimization in process design and sizing of chemical engineering equipment
- Such as compressors, heat exchangers, multistage contactors.

**Section 9: Chemical Technology**

- Inorganic chemical industries (sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, chlor-alkali industry)
- Fertilizers (Ammonia, Urea, SSP and TSP)
- Natural products industries (Pulp and Paper, Sugar, Oil, and Fats)
- Petroleum refining and petrochemicals
- Polymerization industries (polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC and polyester synthetic fibers)

**GATE EXAM SYLLABUS FOR PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (PI)**

**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics**

- Linear Algebra
- Calculus
- Differential equations
- Complex variables
- Numerical Methods

**Section 2: General Engineering**

- Engineering Materials
- Applied Mechanics
- Theory of Machines and Design
- Thermal and Fluids Engineering
- Thermodynamics

**Section 3: Manufacturing Processes I**

- Casting
- Patterns
- Allowances
- Moulds and cores – materials, making, and testing
- Casting techniques of cast iron, steels and nonferrous metals and alloys
- Analysis of solidification and microstructure development
- Design of gating and riser
- Origin of defects.
- Metal Forming
- Concept of flow stress
- Hot and cold working – forging, rolling, extrusion and wire drawing
- Sheet metal working processes – blanking, bending and deep drawing;
- Ideal work and slab analysis
- Origin of metal working defects
- Joining of materials
- Principles of solid state welding processes (friction, explosive welding, ultrasonic welding processes)
- Principles of adhesive, brazing and soldering processes
- Origins of welding defects
- Powder processing
- Polymers and Composites
- Molding of composites

**Section 4: Manufacturing Processes II**

- Machine Tools and Machining
- Non-traditional Manufacturing
- Computer Integrated Manufacturing

**Section 5: Quality and Reliability**

- Metrology and Inspection
- Quality management
- Reliability and Maintenance

**Section 6: Industrial Engineering**

- Product Design and Development
- Work System Design
- Facility Design

**Section 7: Operations research and Operations management**

- Operation Research
- Engineering Economy and Costing
- Production control
- Project management – PERT and CPM.

**GATE online application process 2019**

GATE online application process 2019 is a straightforward and hassle-free process. All applicants must first take note of the important dates related to GATE online application 2019 very carefully. The important dates are as follows:

**GATE Online Application Processing System starting date: 01/09/2018****GATE Online Application Processing System closing date: 21/09/2018****GATE Online Application Processing System extended closing date: 01/10/2018****Last Date for Requesting Change of Examination City (payable): 16/11/2018****Online Availability of Admit Card: 04/01/2019****Gate Examination: 02,03, 09,10 /02/2019****Result Announcement: 16/03/2019**

** **To be able to register themselves as valid GATE candidates, all applicants must ensure that they have a valid Bachelor’s or Master’s degree or are in the final year of the mentioned degree programs. Moreover, it must be ensured by all candidates that their year of completion of degree is not later than 2019. Aspirants who are currently pursuing Integrated M.E./M.Tech after B.Sc must ensure that their year of completion of degree is not later than 2021. Those who are pursuing the same after Diploma or 10+2 must ensure that the year of completion of the degree does not exceed 2020.

All aspirants are advised to visit www.gate.iitm.ac.in and ensure that they have all the required documents available with them before applying for GATE 2019:

- Applicants must fill in the details very carefully.
- The image of the candidate and their signature should be within the specified size limits.
- Applicants who have to produce a caste certificate must ensure that all the details in the scanned image are clear.
- They should, moreover, ensure that the scanned copy is uploaded only in pdf format and that it is within the specified size limit.
- GATE online application process 2019 will begin with the applicant having to accept the terms and conditions.
- After that, he/she will have to fill the form very carefully. Next, he/she will upload all relevant images and documents.
- The aspirant must review their application form very carefully before submitting.
- After that, candidate will be directed to the payment page. The specified fee for GATE 2019 exam has to be paid to complete their candidature.
- Any false information produced will compulsorily lead to cancellation of the candidature. Therefore, all candidates are advised to fill only legit data in the form.

All the best!